Qing Dynastie Ein China-Informationsportal
Die Qing-Dynastie (mandschurisch ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ Daicing Gurun; chinesisch 清朝, Pinyin Qīngcháo, W.-G. Ch'ing Ch'ao) oder Mandschu-Dynastie wurde. Die Qing-Dynastie oder Mandschu-Dynastie wurde von den Mandschu unter Nurhaci begründet und herrschte ab im Kaiserreich China. Sie löste die Ming-Dynastie ab und endete nach der Xinhai-Revolution von mit der Ausrufung der Republik. Die Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Qing-Dynastie (–) in China ist gekennzeichnet durch einen starken Bevölkerungsanstieg und eine zunehmende. Qing war von 16und die lezte Dynastie von chinesischer feudalistischer Gesellschaft. Dann begann die neuere chinesische Geschichte. Während der letzten Dynastie Chinas, der Qing-Dynastie von 16wurde China zum größten und reichsten Land der Erde. Unter den drei.
Jahrhundert die Qing-Dynastie. Sie löste nach offizieller Rechnung im Jahre die Ming-Dynastie ab, der es damals gelungen war die mongolischen Yuan. Die Qing-Dynastie (mandschurisch ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ Daicing Gurun; chinesisch 清朝, Pinyin Qīngcháo, W.-G. Ch'ing Ch'ao) oder Mandschu-Dynastie wurde. Qing war von 16und die lezte Dynastie von chinesischer feudalistischer Gesellschaft. Dann begann die neuere chinesische Geschichte.
Also during the Ming, Japan became more aggressive. In the 15th century Japanese raiders teamed up with Chinese pirates to make coastal raids in Chinese waters, which were of a relatively small scale but were still highly disruptive to Chinese coastal cities.
The Ming government was gradually weakened by factionalism between civil officials, interference by palace eunuchs, the burdens of a growing population, and a succession of weak and inattentive emperors.
The Manchu drove out Li Zicheng and then remained, establishing the Qing dynasty. Despite the many foreign contacts made during the Ming period, cultural developments were characterized by a generally conservative and inward-looking attitude.
Ming architecture is largely undistinguished with the Forbidden City , a palace complex built in Beijing in the 15th century by the Yongle emperor and subsequently enlarged and rebuilt , its main representative.
The best Ming sculpture is found not in large statues but in small ornamental carvings of jade, ivory, wood, and porcelain.
There were many new developments in ceramics, along with the continuation of established traditions.
Three major types of decoration emerged: monochromatic glazes, including celadon, red, green, and yellow; underglaze copper red and cobalt blue; and overglaze, or enamel painting, sometimes combined with underglaze blue.
Much of this porcelain was produced in the huge factory at Jingdezhen in present-day Jiangsu province. The Ming regime restored the former literary examinations for public office, which pleased the literary world, dominated by Southerners.
In their own writing the Ming sought a return to classical prose and poetry styles and, as a result, produced writings that were imitative and generally of little consequence.
Writers of vernacular literature, however, made real contributions, especially in novels and drama. Chinese traditional drama originating in the Song dynasty had been banned by the Mongols but survived underground in the South, and in the Ming era it was restored.
This was chuanqi , a form of musical theatre with numerous scenes and contemporary plots. What emerged was kunqu style, less bombastic in song and accompaniment than other popular theatre.
Under the Ming it enjoyed great popularity, indeed outlasting the dynasty by a century or more. It was adapted into a full-length opera form, which, although still performed today, was gradually replaced in popularity by jingxi Peking opera during the Qing dynasty.
Ming dynasty. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
Introduction History Cultural achievements. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Read More on This Topic. Ineptitude on the throne, bureaucratic factionalism at court, rivalries among Mongol generals, and ineffective supervision and coordination Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today. European trading posts expanded into territorial control in nearby India and on the islands that are now Indonesia. The Qing response, successful for a time, was to establish the Canton System in , which restricted maritime trade to that city modern-day Guangzhou and gave monopoly trading rights to private Chinese merchants.
In , the British East India Company, with the support of the British government, sent a delegation to China under Lord George Macartney in order to open free trade and put relations on a basis of equality.
The imperial court viewed trade as of secondary interest, whereas the British saw maritime trade as the key to their economy.
The Qianlong Emperor told Macartney "the kings of the myriad nations come by land and sea with all sorts of precious things", and "consequently there is nothing we lack Demand in Europe for Chinese goods such as silk, tea, and ceramics could only be met if European companies funneled their limited supplies of silver into China.
In the late s, the governments of Britain and France were deeply concerned about the imbalance of trade and the drain of silver.
To meet the growing Chinese demand for opium , the British East India Company greatly expanded its production in Bengal. Since China's economy was essentially self-sufficient, the country had little need to import goods or raw materials from the Europeans, so the usual way of payment was through silver.
The Daoguang Emperor , concerned both over the outflow of silver and the damage that opium smoking was causing to his subjects, ordered Lin Zexu to end the opium trade.
Lin confiscated the stocks of opium without compensation in , leading Britain to send a military expedition the following year. The First Opium War revealed the outdated state of the Chinese military.
The Qing navy, composed entirely of wooden sailing junks , was severely outclassed by the modern tactics and firepower of the British Royal Navy.
British soldiers, using advanced muskets and artillery, easily outmanoeuvred and outgunned Qing forces in ground battles.
The Qing surrender in marked a decisive, humiliating blow to China. It revealed weaknesses in the Qing government and provoked rebellions against the regime.
In , the Qing dynasty fought a war with the Sikh Empire the last independent kingdom of India , resulting in a negotiated peace and a return to the status quo ante bellum.
The Taiping Rebellion in the midth century was the first major instance of anti-Manchu sentiment. Hong announced that he had visions of God and that he was the brother of Jesus Christ.
Slavery, concubinage, arranged marriage, opium smoking, footbinding, judicial torture, and the worship of idols were all banned.
However, success led to internal feuds, defections and corruption. In addition, British and French troops, equipped with modern weapons, had come to the assistance of the Qing imperial army.
It was not until that Qing armies under Zeng Guofan succeeded in crushing the revolt. After the outbreak of this rebellion, there were also revolts by the Muslims and Miao people of China against the Qing dynasty, most notably in the Miao Rebellion —73 in Guizhou , the Panthay Rebellion — in Yunnan and the Dungan Revolt —77 in the northwest.
The Western powers, largely unsatisfied with the Treaty of Nanjing, gave grudging support to the Qing government during the Taiping and Nian Rebellions.
China's income fell sharply during the wars as vast areas of farmland were destroyed, millions of lives were lost, and countless armies were raised and equipped to fight the rebels.
In , Britain tried to re-negotiate the Treaty of Nanjing, inserting clauses allowing British commercial access to Chinese rivers and the creation of a permanent British embassy at Beijing.
In , Qing authorities, in searching for a pirate, boarded a ship, the Arrow , which the British claimed had been flying the British flag, an incident which led to the Second Opium War.
In , facing no other options, the Xianfeng Emperor agreed to the Treaty of Tientsin , which contained clauses deeply insulting to the Chinese, such as a demand that all official Chinese documents be written in English and a proviso granting British warships unlimited access to all navigable Chinese rivers.
Ratification of the treaty in the following year led to a resumption of hostilities. In , with Anglo-French forces marching on Beijing, the emperor and his court fled the capital for the imperial hunting lodge at Rehe.
Once in Beijing, the Anglo-French forces looted the Old Summer Palace and, in an act of revenge for the arrest of several Englishmen, burnt it to the ground.
Prince Gong , a younger half-brother of the emperor, who had been left as his brother's proxy in the capital, was forced to sign the Convention of Beijing.
The humiliated emperor died the following year at Rehe. Yet the dynasty rallied. Chinese generals and officials such as Zuo Zongtang led the suppression of rebellions and stood behind the Manchus.
When the Tongzhi Emperor came to the throne at the age of five in , these officials rallied around him in what was called the Tongzhi Restoration.
Their aim was to adopt Western military technology in order to preserve Confucian values. Zeng Guofan , in alliance with Prince Gong, sponsored the rise of younger officials such as Li Hongzhang , who put the dynasty back on its feet financially and instituted the Self-Strengthening Movement.
The reformers then proceeded with institutional reforms, including China's first unified ministry of foreign affairs, the Zongli Yamen ; allowing foreign diplomats to reside in the capital; establishment of the Imperial Maritime Customs Service ; the formation of modernized armies, such as the Beiyang Army , as well as a navy; and the purchase from Europeans of armament factories.
The dynasty lost control of peripheral territories bit by bit. In return for promises of support against the British and the French, the Russian Empire took large chunks of territory in the Northeast in The period of cooperation between the reformers and the European powers ended with the Tientsin Massacre of , which was incited by the murder of French nuns set off by the belligerence of local French diplomats.
Starting with the Cochinchina Campaign in , France expanded control of Indochina. By , France was in full control of the region and had reached the Chinese border.
After that the Chinese declared war on the French. However Japan threatened to enter the war against China due to the Gapsin Coup and China chose to end the war with negotiations.
The war ended in with the Treaty of Tientsin and the Chinese recognition of the French protectorate in Vietnam.
Tensions between China and Japan rose after China intervened to suppress the uprising. The terms might have been harsher, but when a Japanese citizen attacked and wounded Li Hongzhang, an international outcry shamed the Japanese into revising them.
The original agreement stipulated the cession of Liaodong Peninsula to Japan, but Russia, with its own designs on the territory, along with Germany and France, in the Triple Intervention , successfully put pressure on the Japanese to abandon the peninsula.
She entered the imperial palace in the s as a concubine to the Xianfeng Emperor r. She, the Empress Dowager Ci'an who had been Xianfeng's empress , and Prince Gong a son of the Daoguang Emperor , staged a coup that ousted several regents for the boy emperor.
Between and , she and Ci'an served as regents, choosing the reign title "Tongzhi" ruling together. Following the emperor's death in , Cixi's nephew, the Guangxu Emperor , took the throne, in violation of the dynastic custom that the new emperor be of the next generation, and another regency began.
In the spring of , Ci'an suddenly died, aged only forty-three, leaving Cixi as sole regent. From , when Guangxu began to rule in his own right, to , the Empress Dowager lived in semi-retirement, spending the majority of the year at the Summer Palace.
Germany used the murders as a pretext for a naval occupation of Jiaozhou Bay. The occupation prompted a "scramble for concessions" in , which included the German lease of Jiazhou Bay , the Russian acquisition of Liaodong , and the British lease of the New Territories of Hong Kong.
In the wake of these external defeats, the Guangxu Emperor initiated the Hundred Days' Reform of Newer, more radical advisers such as Kang Youwei were given positions of influence.
The emperor issued a series of edicts and plans were made to reorganize the bureaucracy , restructure the school system, and appoint new officials.
Opposition from the bureaucracy was immediate and intense. Although she had been involved in the initial reforms, the Empress Dowager stepped in to call them off , arrested and executed several reformers, and took over day-to-day control of policy.
Yet many of the plans stayed in place, and the goals of reform were implanted. Widespread drought in North China, combined with the imperialist designs of European powers and the instability of the Qing government, created conditions that led to the emergence of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, or " Boxers.
A coalition of European, Japanese, and Russian armies the Eight-Nation Alliance then entered China without diplomatic notice, much less permission.
Cixi declared war on all of these nations, only to lose control of Beijing after a short, but hard-fought campaign. She fled to Xi'an.
The victorious allies drew up scores of demands on the Qing government, including compensation for their expenses in invading China and execution of complicit officials.
By the early 20th century, mass civil disorder had begun in China, and it was growing continuously. To overcome such problems, Empress Dowager Cixi issued an imperial edict in calling for reform proposals from the governors-general and governors and initiated the era of the dynasty's " New Policies ", also known as the "Late Qing Reform".
The edict paved the way for the most far-reaching reforms in terms of their social consequences, including the creation of a national education system and the abolition of the imperial examinations in Rumors held that she or Yuan Shikai ordered trusted eunuchs to poison the Guangxu Emperor, and an autopsy conducted nearly a century later confirmed lethal levels of arsenic in his corpse.
This was followed by the dismissal of General Yuan Shikai from his former positions of power. In April Zaifeng created a cabinet in which there were two vice-premiers.
Nonetheless, this cabinet was also known by contemporaries as "The Royal Cabinet" because among the thirteen cabinet members, five were members of the imperial family or Aisin Gioro relatives.
The Wuchang Uprising of 10 October was a success; by 14 November of the 15 provinces had rejected Qing rule. This led to the creation of a new central government, the Republic of China , in Nanjing with Sun Yat-sen as its provisional head.
Many provinces soon began "separating" from Qing control. Seeing a desperate situation unfold, the Qing government brought Yuan Shikai back to military power.
After taking the position of Prime Minister and creating his own cabinet, Yuan Shikai went as far as to ask for the removal of Zaifeng from the regency.
This removal later proceeded with directions from Empress Dowager Longyu. Yuan Shikai was now a dictator—the ruler of China and the Manchu dynasty had lost all power; it formally abdicated in early Premier Yuan Shikai and his Beiyang commanders decided that going to war would be unreasonable and costly.
Similarly, Sun Yat-sen wanted a republican constitutional reform, for the benefit of China's economy and populace.
With permission from Empress Dowager Longyu, Yuan Shikai began negotiating with Sun Yat-sen, who decided that his goal had been achieved in forming a republic, and that therefore he could allow Yuan to step into the position of President of the Republic of China.
On 12 February , after rounds of negotiations, Longyu issued an imperial edict bringing about the abdication of the child emperor Puyi.
This brought an end to over 2, years of Imperial China and began an extended period of instability of warlord factionalism.
The unorganized political and economic systems combined with a widespread criticism of Chinese culture led to questioning and doubt about the future.
Some Qing loyalists organized themselves as " Royalist Party ", and tried to use militant activism and open rebellions to restore the monarchy, but to no avail.
After the invasion by the Soviet Union , Manchukuo fell in The early Qing emperors adopted the bureaucratic structures and institutions from the preceding Ming dynasty but split rule between Han Chinese and Manchus , with some positions also given to Mongols.
The Qing divided the positions into civil and military positions, each having nine grades or ranks, each subdivided into a and b categories.
Civil appointments ranged from an attendant to the emperor or a Grand Secretary in the Forbidden City highest to being a prefectural tax collector, deputy jail warden, deputy police commissioner, or tax examiner.
Military appointments ranged from being a field marshal or chamberlain of the imperial bodyguard to a third class sergeant, corporal or a first or second class private.
The formal structure of the Qing government centered on the Emperor as the absolute ruler, who presided over six Boards Ministries [c] , each headed by two presidents [d] and assisted by four vice presidents.
The Grand Secretariat , [f] which had been an important policy-making body under the Ming, lost its importance during the Qing and evolved into an imperial chancery.
The institutions which had been inherited from the Ming formed the core of the Qing " Outer Court ", which handled routine matters and was located in the southern part of the Forbidden City.
In order not to let the routine administration take over the running of the empire, the Qing emperors made sure that all important matters were decided in the " Inner Court ", which was dominated by the imperial family and Manchu nobility and which was located in the northern part of the Forbidden City.
The core institution of the inner court was the Grand Council. The Six Ministries and their respective areas of responsibilities were as follows:.
Board of Civil Appointments [i]. Board of Revenue [j]. Board of Rites [k]. Board of War [l]. Board of Punishments [m].
Board of Works [n]. From the early Qing, the central government was characterized by a system of dual appointments by which each position in the central government had a Manchu and a Han Chinese assigned to it.
The Han Chinese appointee was required to do the substantive work and the Manchu to ensure Han loyalty to Qing rule.
In addition to the six boards, there was a Lifan Yuan [o] unique to the Qing government. This institution was established to supervise the administration of Tibet and the Mongol lands.
As the empire expanded, it took over administrative responsibility of all minority ethnic groups living in and around the empire, including early contacts with Russia — then seen as a tribute nation.
The office had the status of a full ministry and was headed by officials of equal rank. However, appointees were at first restricted only to candidates of Manchu and Mongol ethnicity, until later open to Han Chinese as well.
Even though the Board of Rites and Lifan Yuan performed some duties of a foreign office, they fell short of developing into a professional foreign service.
It was not until — a year after losing the Second Opium War to the Anglo-French coalition — that the Qing government bowed to foreign pressure and created a proper foreign affairs office known as the Zongli Yamen.
The office was originally intended to be temporary and was staffed by officials seconded from the Grand Council. However, as dealings with foreigners became increasingly complicated and frequent, the office grew in size and importance, aided by revenue from customs duties which came under its direct jurisdiction.
There was also another government institution called Imperial Household Department which was unique to the Qing dynasty. It was established before the fall of the Ming, but it became mature only after , following the death of the Shunzhi Emperor and the accession of his son, the Kangxi Emperor.
The department was manned by booi , [p] or "bondservants," from the Upper Three Banners. There were originally 18 provinces, all of which in China proper, but later this number was increased to 22, with Manchuria and Xinjiang being divided or turned into provinces.
Taiwan , originally part of Fujian province, became a province of its own in the 19th century, but was ceded to the Empire of Japan following the First Sino-Japanese War by the end of the century.
In addition, many surrounding countries, such as Korea Joseon dynasty , Vietnam frequently paid tribute to China during much of this period.
The Katoor dynasty of Afghanistan also paid tribute to the Qing dynasty of China until the midth century. Until the inhabitants paid tribute to the Mir of Hunza , who exercised control over the pastures.
The Qing organization of provinces was based on the fifteen administrative units set up by the Ming dynasty, later made into eighteen provinces by splitting for example, Huguang into Hubei and Hunan provinces.
The provincial bureaucracy continued the Yuan and Ming practice of three parallel lines, civil, military, and censorate , or surveillance.
The lowest unit was the county , overseen by a county magistrate. The eighteen provinces are also known as "China proper". There were eight regional viceroys in China proper, each usually took charge of two or three provinces.
The Viceroy of Zhili , who was responsible for the area surrounding the capital Beijing , is usually considered as the most honorable and powerful viceroy among the eight.
By the midth century, the Qing had successfully put outer regions such as Inner and Outer Mongolia , Tibet and Xinjiang under its control.
Imperial commissioners and garrisons were sent to Mongolia and Tibet to oversee their affairs. These territories were also under supervision of a central government institution called Lifan Yuan.
Qinghai was also put under direct control of the Qing court. Xinjiang, also known as Chinese Turkestan, was subdivided into the regions north and south of the Tian Shan mountains, also known today as Dzungaria and Tarim Basin respectively, but the post of Ili General was established in to exercise unified military and administrative jurisdiction over both regions.
Dzungaria was fully opened to Han migration by the Qianlong Emperor from the beginning. Han migrants were at first forbidden from permanently settling in the Tarim Basin but were the ban was lifted after the invasion by Jahangir Khoja in the s.
Likewise, Manchuria was also governed by military generals until its division into provinces, though some areas of Xinjiang and Northeast China were lost to the Russian Empire in the midth century.
Manchuria was originally separated from China proper by the Inner Willow Palisade , a ditch and embankment planted with willows intended to restrict the movement of the Han Chinese, as the area was off-limits to civilian Han Chinese until the government started colonizing the area, especially since the s.
With respect to these outer regions, the Qing maintained imperial control, with the emperor acting as Mongol khan, patron of Tibetan Buddhism and protector of Muslims.
However, Qing policy changed with the establishment of Xinjiang province in The Qing court sent forces to defeat Yaqub Beg and Xinjiang was reconquered, and then the political system of China proper was formally applied onto Xinjiang.
The Kumul Khanate , which was incorporated into the Qing empire as a vassal after helping Qing defeat the Zunghars in , maintained its status after Xinjiang turned into a province through the end of the dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution up until The Qing court responded by asserting Chinese sovereignty over Tibet,  resulting in the Anglo-Chinese Convention signed between Britain and China.
The British agreed not to annex Tibetan territory or to interfere in the administration of Tibet, while China engaged not to permit any other foreign state to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet.
The early Qing military was rooted in the Eight Banners first developed by Nurhaci to organize Jurchen society beyond petty clan affiliations.
There were eight banners in all, differentiated by color. The yellow, bordered yellow, and white banners were known as the "Upper Three Banners" and were under the direct command of the emperor.
Only Manchus belonging to the Upper Three Banners, and selected Han Chinese who had passed the highest level of martial exams could serve as the emperor's personal bodyguards.
The remaining Banners were known as the "Lower Five Banners". They were commanded by hereditary Manchu princes descended from Nurhachi's immediate family, known informally as the " Iron cap princes ".
Together they formed the ruling council of the Manchu nation as well as high command of the army. After capturing Beijing in , the relatively small Banner armies were further augmented by the Green Standard Army , made up of those Ming troops who had surrendered to the Qing, which eventually outnumbered Banner troops three to one.
They maintained their Ming era organization and were led by a mix of Banner and Green Standard officers. Banner Armies were organized along ethnic lines, namely Manchu and Mongol, but included non-Manchu bondservants registered under the household of their Manchu masters.
Han also numerically dominated the Banners up until the mid 18th century. The Qianlong Emperor, concerned about maintaining Manchu identity, re-emphasized Manchu ethnicity, ancestry, language, and culture in the Eight Banners and started a mass discharge of Han Bannermen from the Eight Banners, either asking them to voluntarily resign from the Banner rolls or striking their names off.
This led to a change from Han majority to a Manchu majority within the Banner system,  and previous Han Bannermen garrisons in southern China such as at Fuzhou, Zhenjiang, Guangzhou, were replaced by Manchu Bannermen in the purge, which started in The turnover by Qianlong most heavily impacted Han banner garrisons stationed in the provinces while it less impacted Han Bannermen in Beijing, leaving a larger proportion of remaining Han Bannermen in Beijing than the provinces.
After a century of peace the Manchu Banner troops lost their fighting edge. Before the conquest, the Manchu banner had been a "citizen" army whose members were farmers and herders obligated to provide military service in times of war.
The decision to turn the banner troops into a professional force whose every need was met by the state brought wealth, corruption, and decline as a fighting force.
The Green Standard Army declined in a similar way. Early during the Taiping Rebellion , Qing forces suffered a series of disastrous defeats culminating in the loss of the regional capital city of Nanjing in Shortly thereafter, a Taiping expeditionary force penetrated as far north as the suburbs of Tianjin , the imperial heartlands.
In desperation the Qing court ordered a Chinese official, Zeng Guofan , to organize regional and village militias into an emergency army called tuanlian.
Zeng Guofan's strategy was to rely on local gentry to raise a new type of military organization from those provinces that the Taiping rebels directly threatened.
This new force became known as the Xiang Army , named after the Hunan region where it was raised. The Xiang Army was a hybrid of local militia and a standing army.
It was given professional training, but was paid for out of regional coffers and funds its commanders — mostly members of the Chinese gentry — could muster.
Zeng Guofan had no prior military experience. Being a classically educated official, he took his blueprint for the Xiang Army from the Ming general Qi Jiguang , who, because of the weakness of regular Ming troops, had decided to form his own "private" army to repel raiding Japanese pirates in the midth century.
Qi Jiguang's doctrine was based on Neo-Confucian ideas of binding troops' loyalty to their immediate superiors and also to the regions in which they were raised.
Zeng Guofan's original intention for the Xiang Army was simply to eradicate the Taiping rebels. However, the success of the Yongying system led to its becoming a permanent regional force within the Qing military, which in the long run created problems for the beleaguered central government.
First, the Yongying system signaled the end of Manchu dominance in Qing military establishment. Although the Banners and Green Standard armies lingered on as a drain on resources, henceforth the Yongying corps became the Qing government's de facto first-line troops.
Second, the Yongying corps were financed through provincial coffers and were led by regional commanders, weakening central government's grip on the whole country.
Finally, the nature of Yongying command structure fostered nepotism and cronyism amongst its commanders, who laid the seeds of regional warlordism in the first half of the 20th century.
By the late 19th century, the most conservative elements within the Qing court could no longer ignore China's military weakness.
In , during the Second Opium War , the capital Beijing was captured and the Summer Palace sacked by a relatively small Anglo-French coalition force numbering 25, The advent of modern weaponry resulting from the European Industrial Revolution had rendered China's traditionally trained and equipped army and navy obsolete.
The government attempts to modernize during the Self-Strengthening Movement were initially successful, but yielded few lasting results because of the central government's lack of funds, lack of political will, and unwillingness to depart from tradition.
Losing the First Sino-Japanese War of — was a watershed. Japan , a country long regarded by the Chinese as little more than an upstart nation of pirates, annihilated the Qing government's modernized Beiyang Fleet , then deemed to be the strongest naval force in Asia.
The Japanese victory occurred a mere three decades after the Meiji Restoration set a feudal Japan on course to emulate the Western nations in their economic and technological achievements.
Finally, in December , the Qing government took concrete steps to reform military institutions and to re-train selected units in Westernized drills, tactics and weaponry.
These units were collectively called the New Army. The most successful of these was the Beiyang Army under the overall supervision and control of a former Huai Army commander, General Yuan Shikai , who used his position to build networks of loyal officers and eventually become President of the Republic of China.
The most significant facts of early and mid-Qing social history was growth in population, population density, and mobility.
One reason for this growth was the spread of New World crops like peanuts, sweet potatoes, and potatoes, which helped to sustain the people during shortages of harvest for crops such as rice or wheat.
These crops could be grown under harsher conditions, and thus were cheaper as well, which led to them becoming staples for poorer farmers, decreasing the number of deaths from malnutrition.
Diseases such as smallpox , widespread in the seventeenth century, were brought under control by an increase in inoculations. In addition, infant deaths were also greatly decreased due to improvements in birthing techniques and childcare performed by doctors and midwives and through an increase in medical books available to the public.
Unlike Europe, where population growth in this period was greatest in the cities, in China the growth in cities and the lower Yangzi was low.
The greatest growth was in the borderlands and the highlands, where farmers could clear large tracts of marshlands and forests.
The population was also remarkably mobile, perhaps more so than at any time in Chinese history.
Indeed, the Qing government did far more to encourage mobility than to discourage it. After the conquests of the s and s, the court organized agricultural colonies in Xinjiang.
Migration might be permanent, for resettlement, or the migrants in theory at least might regard the move as a temporary sojourn.
The latter included an increasingly large and mobile workforce. Local-origin-based merchant groups also moved freely.
This mobility also included the organized movement of Qing subjects overseas, largely to Southeastern Asia , in search of trade and other economic opportunities.
According to statute, Qing society was divided into relatively closed estates, of which in most general terms there were five.
Apart from the estates of the officials, the comparatively minuscule aristocracy, and the degree-holding literati , there also existed a major division among ordinary Chinese between commoners and people with inferior status.
The majority of the population belonged to the first category and were described as liangmin , a legal term meaning good people, as opposed to jianmin meaning the mean or ignoble people.
Qing law explicitly stated that the traditional four occupational groups of scholars, farmers, artisans and merchants were "good", or having a status of commoners.
On the other hand, slaves or bondservants, entertainers including prostitutes and actors , tattooed criminals, and those low-level employees of government officials were the "mean people".
Mean people were considered legally inferior to commoners and suffered unequal treatments, forbidden to take the imperial examination. However, throughout the Qing dynasty, the emperor and his court, as well as the bureaucracy, worked towards reducing the distinctions between the debased and free but did not completely succeed even at the end of its era in merging the two classifications together.
Although there had been no powerful hereditary aristocracy since the Song dynasty , the gentry shenshi , like their British counterparts, enjoyed imperial privileges and managed local affairs.
The status of this scholar-official was defined by passing at least the first level of civil service examinations and holding a degree, which qualified him to hold imperial office, although he might not actually do so.
The gentry member could legally wear gentry robes and could talk to other officials as equals. Officials who had served for one or two terms could then retire to enjoy the glory of their status.
Informally, the gentry then presided over local society and could use their connections to influence the magistrate, acquire land, and maintain large households.
The gentry thus included not only the males holding degrees but also their wives, descendants, some of their relatives. The Qing gentry were defined as much by their refined lifestyle as by their legal status.
They lived more refined and comfortable lives than the commoners and used sedan-chairs to travel any significant distance.
They were usually highly literate and often showed off their learning. They commonly collected objects such as scholars' stones , porcelain or pieces of art for their beauty, which set them off from less cultivated commoners.
In Qing society, women did not enjoy the same rights as men. The Confucian moral system, which was built by and thus favored men, restrained their rights, and they were often seen as a type of " merchandise " that could be traded away by their family.
Once a woman married, she essentially became the property of her husband's family, and could not divorce her husband except under very specific circumstances, such as severe physical harm or an attempt to sell her into prostitution.
Men, on the other hand, could divorce their wives for trivial matters such as excessive talkativeness. Furthermore, women were extremely restricted in owning property and inheritance and were essentially confined to their homes and stripped of social interaction and mobility.
Mothers often bound their young daughters' feet , a practice that was seen as a standard of feminine beauty and a necessity to be marriageable, but was also a way to restrict a woman's physical movement in society.
By early Qing, the romanticized courtesan culture , which had been much more popular in the late-Ming with men who had sought a model of a refinement and literacy that was missing from their marriage partners, had mostly disappeared.
Such a decline was the result of the Qing's reinforced defense of fundamental Confucian family values as well as an attempt to put a stop to the cultural revolution that was happening at the time.
The court thus began to rain down heavily on such practices as prostitution, pornography, rape, and homosexuality. However, by the time of the Qianlong emperor , red-light districts had once again become capitals of tasteful and trending courtesanship.
In economically diverse port cities such as Tianjin , Chongqing , and Hankou , the sex trade became a large business, which helped supply a fine hierarchy of prostitutes to all classes of men.
Shanghai , which had been rapidly growing in the late nineteenth century, became a city where prostitutes of different ranks whom male patrons fawned over and gossiped about, as some became recognized as national entities of femininity.
Another rising phenomenon, especially during the eighteenth century, was the cult of widow chastity. The fact that many young women were betrothed during early adolescence coupled with the high rate of early mortality resulted in a significant number of young widows.
This resulted in a problem, as most women had already moved into their husband's household and upon her husband's death essentially became a burden who could never fulfill her original duty of producing a male heir.
Widow chastity began to be seen as a form of devout filiality for other relationships including loyalty to the emperor, which resulted in the Qing court's attempt to reward those families who resisted selling off their unneeded daughters-in-law in order to underline such women's virtue.
However, this system began to decline when families who attempted to "abuse" the system appeared for social competition and authorities speculated that some families coerced their young widows to commit suicide at the time of their husband's death to obtain more honors.
Such corruption showed a lack of respect for human life, and was thus greatly disapproved of by the officials who then chose to reward the families more sparingly.
One of the main reasons for a shift in gender roles was the unprecedentedly high incidence of men leaving their homes to travel, which in turn gave women more freedom for action.
Wives of such men often became the ones to run the household, especially in financial matters. Elite women also began to pursue different fashionable activities, such as writing poetry, and a new frenzy of female sociability appeared.
Women started to leave their households to attend local opera performances and temple festivals and some even began to form little societies to visit famous sacred sites with other restless women, which helped to shape a new view of the conventional societal norms on how women should behave.
Patrilineal kinship had compelling power socially and culturally; local lineages became the building blocks of society.
A person's success or failure depended, people believed, on guidance from a father, from which the family's success and prosperity also grew.
The patrilineage kinship structure, that is, descent through the male line, was often translated as "clan" in earlier scholarship. By the Qing, the patrilineage had become the primary organizational device in society.
This change began during the Song dynasty when the civil service examination became a means for gaining status versus nobility and inheritance of status.
Elite families began to shift their marital practices, identity and loyalty. Instead of intermarrying within aristocratic elites of the same social status, they tended to form marital alliances with nearby families of the same or higher wealth, and established the local people's interests as first and foremost which helped to form intermarried townships.
Inner Mongols and Khalkha Mongols in the Qing rarely knew their ancestors beyond four generations and Mongol tribal society was not organized among patrilineal clans, contrary to what was commonly thought, but included unrelated people at the base unit of organization.
Qing lineages claimed to be based on biological descent but they were often purposefully crafted. When a member of a lineage gained office or became wealthy, he might look back to identify a "founding ancestor", sometimes using considerable creativity in selecting a prestigious local figure.
Once such a person had been chosen, a Chinese character was assigned to be used in the given name of each male in each succeeding generation.
A written genealogy was compiled to record the lineage's history, biographies of respected ancestors, a chart of all the family members of each generation, rules for the members to follow, and often copies of title contracts for collective property as well.
Lastly, an ancestral hall was built to serve as the lineage's headquarters and a place for annual ancestral sacrifice.
Later observers felt that the ancestral cult focused on the family and lineage, rather than on more public matters such as community and nation.
Catholic missionaries—mostly Jesuits—had arrived in the Ming dynasty. By there were Catholic missionaries, and at most , converts out of hundreds of millions.
There were many persecutions and reverses in the 18th century and by there was little help from the main supporters in France, Spain and Portugal.
The impact on Chinese society was hard to see, apart from some contributions to mathematics, astronomy and the calendar.
Missionaries were often seen as part of Western imperialism. The educated gentry were afraid for their own power. The mandarins claim to power lay in the knowledge of the Chinese classics—all government officials had to pass extremely difficult tests on Confucianism.
The elite currently in power feared this might be replaced by the Bible, scientific training and Western education. Indeed, the examination system was abolished in the early 20th century by reformers who admired Western models of modernization.
Anti-missionary activity in China was extremely widespread. There were several hundred incidents important enough to need top-level diplomatic handling, while the number of cases that were settled locally probably ran into the thousands [ Catholic missionaries in the 19th century arrived primarily from France.
While they arrived somewhat later than the Protestants, their congregations grew at a faster rate. Over Protestant missionaries were active among the , Christians in China.
Missionaries, like all foreigners, enjoyed extraterritorial legal rights. They were much more successful in setting up schools, as well as hospitals and dispensaries.
They usually avoided Chinese politics, but were opponents of foot-binding and opium. Chinese elites often associated missionary activity with the imperialistic exploitation of China, and with promoting "new technology and ideas that threatened their positions.
Fairbank says, "To most Chinese, Christian missionaries seem to be the ideological arm of foreign aggression To the scholar-gentry, missionaries were foreign subversives, whose immoral conduct and teachings were backed by gunboats.
Conservative patriots hated and feared these alien, intruders. Medical missions in China by the late 19th century laid the foundations for modern medicine in China.
Western medical missionaries established the first modern clinics and hospitals, provided the first training for nurses, and opened the first medical schools in China.
The foreign physicians operated hospitals and dispensaries, treating 1. In , male medical missionaries comprised 14 percent of all missionaries; women doctors were four percent.
Modern medical education in China started in the early 20th century at hospitals run by international missionaries. From to , it was the period of proscription.
After the Opium Wars, there was the arising of new world order between Qing China and the Western states. By the end of the 17th century, the Chinese economy had recovered from the devastation caused by the wars in which the Ming dynasty were overthrown, and the resulting breakdown of order.
The dramatic rise in population was due to several reasons, including the long period of peace and stability in the 18th century and the import of new crops China received from the Americas, including peanuts, sweet potatoes and maize.
New species of rice from Southeast Asia led to a huge increase in production. Merchant guilds proliferated in all of the growing Chinese cities and often acquired great social and even political influence.
Rich merchants with official connections built up huge fortunes and patronized literature, theater and the arts.
Textile and handicraft production boomed. The government broadened land ownership by returning land that had been sold to large landowners in the late Ming period by families unable to pay the land tax.
During the Ming—Qing period — the biggest development in the Chinese economy was its transition from a command to a market economy, the latter becoming increasingly more pervasive throughout the Qing's rule.
During the second commercial revolution, for the first time, a large percentage of farming households began producing crops for sale in the local and national markets rather than for their own consumption or barter in the traditional economy.
Surplus crops were placed onto the national market for sale, integrating farmers into the commercial economy from the ground up.
This naturally led to regions specializing in certain cash-crops for export as China's economy became increasingly reliant on inter-regional trade of bulk staple goods such as cotton, grain, beans, vegetable oils, forest products, animal products, and fertilizer.
Perhaps the most important factor in the development of the second commercial revolution was the mass influx of silver that entered into the country from foreign trade.
After the Spanish conquered the Philippines in the s they mined for silver around the New World , greatly expanding the circulating supply of silver.
By standardizing the collection of the land tax in silver, landlords followed suit and began only accepting rent payments in silver rather than in crops themselves, which in turn incentivized farmers to produce crops for sale in local and national markets rather than for their own personal consumption or barter.
Since it was never properly minted, a third-party had to be brought in to assess the weight and purity of the silver, resulting in an extra "meltage fee" added on to the price of transaction.
Furthermore, since the "meltage fee" was unregulated until the reign of the Yongzheng emperor it was the source of much corruption at each level of the bureaucracy.
The Yongzheng emperor cracked down on the corrupt "meltage fees," legalizing and regulating them so that they could be collected as a tax, "returning meltage fees to the public coffer.
The second commercial revolution also had a profound effect on the dispersion of the Qing populace. Up until the late Ming there existed a stark contrast between the rural countryside and city metropoles and very few mid-sized cities existed.
This was due to the fact that extraction of surplus crops from the countryside was traditionally done by the state and not commercial organizations.
However, as commercialization expanded exponentially in the late-Ming and early-Qing, mid-sized cities began popping up to direct the flow of domestic, commercial trade.
Some towns of this nature had such a large volume of trade and merchants flowing through them that they developed into full-fledged market-towns.
Some of these more active market-towns even developed into small-cities and became home to the new rising merchant-class. As more and more Chinese-citizens were travelling the country conducting trade they increasingly found themselves in a far-away place needing a place to stay, in response the market saw the expansion of guild halls to house these merchants.
A key distinguishing feature of the Qing economy was the emergence of guild halls around the nation. As inter-regional trade and travel became ever more common during the Qing, guild halls dedicated to facilitating commerce, huiguan , gained prominence around the urban landscape.
The location where two merchants would meet to exchange commodities was usually mediated by a third-party broker who served a variety of roles for the market and local citizenry including bringing together buyers and sellers, guaranteeing the good faith of both parties, standardizing the weights, measurements, and procedures of the two parties, collecting tax for the government, and operating inns and warehouses.
The first recorded trade guild set up to facilitate inter-regional commerce was in Hankou in Along with the huiguan trade guilds, guild halls dedicated to more specific professions, gongsuo , began to appear and to control commercial craft or artisanal industries such as carpentry, weaving, banking, and medicine.
In the Kangxi emperor legalized private maritime trade along the coast, establishing a series of customs stations in major port cities.
The customs station at Canton became by far the most active in foreign trade and by the late Kangxi reign more than forty mercantile houses specializing in trade with the West had appeared.
The Yongzheng emperor made a parent corporation comprising those forty individual houses in known as the Cohong system.
Firmly established by , the Canton Cohong was an association of thirteen business firms that had been awarded exclusive rights to conduct trade with Western merchants in Canton.
Until its abolition after the Opium War in , the Canton Cohong system was the only permitted avenue of Western trade into China, and thus became a booming hub of international trade by the early eighteenth century.
British demand for tea increased exponentially up until they figured out how to grow it for themselves in the hills of northern India in the s.
By the end of the eighteenth century tea exports going through the Canton Cohong system amounted to one-tenth of the revenue from taxes collected from the British and nearly the entire revenue of the British East India Company and until the early nineteenth century tea comprised ninety percent of exports leaving Canton.
Chinese scholars, court academies, and local officials carried on late Ming dynasty strengths in astronomy , mathematics , and geography , as well as technologies in ceramics , metallurgy , water transport , printing.
Contrary to stereotypes in some Western writing, 16th and 17th century Qing dynasty officials and literati eagerly explored the technology and science introduced by Jesuit missionaries.
Manchu leaders employed Jesuits to use cannon and gunpowder to great effect in the conquest of China, and the court sponsored their research in astronomy.
The aim of these efforts, however, was to reform and improve inherited science and technology, not to replace it. Scientific knowledge advanced during the Qing, but there was not a change in the way this knowledge was organized or the way scientific evidence was defined or its truth tested.
His attempt to reconcile Chinese and the Western science introduced by the Jesuits by arguing that both had originated in ancient China did not succeed, but he did show that science could be conceived and practiced separately from humanistic scholarship.
Those who studied the physical universe shared their findings with each other and identified themselves as men of science, but they did not have a separate and independent professional role with its own training and advancement.
They were still literati. The Opium Wars , however, demonstrated the power of steam engine and military technology that had only recently been put into practice in the West.
During the Self-Strengthening Movement of the s and s Confucian officials in several coastal provinces established an industrial base in military technology.
The introduction of railroads into China raised questions that were more political than technological. A British company built the twelve-mile Shanghai—Woosung line in , obtaining the land under false pretenses, and it was soon torn up.
Court officials feared local public opinion and that railways would help invaders, harm farmlands, and obstruct feng shui. As late as , only miles were in operation, with more miles in the planning stage.
Finally, 5, miles of railway were completed. Protestant missionaries by the s translated and printed Western science and medical textbooks.
The textbooks found homes in the rapidly enlarging network of missionary schools, and universities. The textbooks opened learning open possibilities for the small number of Chinese students interested in science, and a very small number interested in technology.
After , Japan had a greater role in bringing modern science and technology to Chinese audiences but even then they reached chiefly the children of the rich landowning gentry, who seldom engaged in industrial careers.
Under the Qing, inherited forms of art flourished and innovations occurred at many levels and in many types. High levels of literacy, a successful publishing industry, prosperous cities, and the Confucian emphasis on cultivation all fed a lively and creative set of cultural fields.
By the end of the nineteenth century, national artistic and cultural worlds had begun to come to terms with the cosmopolitan culture of the West and Japan.
The decision to stay within old forms or welcome Western models was now a conscious choice rather than an unchallenged acceptance of tradition.
Classically trained Confucian scholars such as Liang Qichao and Wang Guowei read widely and broke aesthetic and critical ground later cultivated in the New Culture Movement.
The Qing emperors were generally adept at poetry and often skilled in painting, and offered their patronage to Confucian culture.
The Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors, for instance, embraced Chinese traditions both to control them and to proclaim their own legitimacy.
The Kangxi Emperor sponsored the Peiwen Yunfu , a rhyme dictionary published in , and the Kangxi Dictionary published in , which remains to this day an authoritative reference.
The Qianlong Emperor sponsored the largest collection of writings in Chinese history, the Siku Quanshu , completed in Court painters made new versions of the Song masterpiece, Zhang Zeduan 's Along the River During the Qingming Festival whose depiction of a prosperous and happy realm demonstrated the beneficence of the emperor.
The emperors undertook tours of the south and commissioned monumental scrolls to depict the grandeur of the occasion. Peking glassware became popular after European glass making processes were introduced by Jesuits to Beijing.
Yet the most impressive aesthetic works were done among the scholars and urban elite. Calligraphy and painting  remained a central interest to both court painters and scholar-gentry who considered the Four Arts part of their cultural identity and social standing.
The nineteenth century saw such innovations as the Shanghai School and the Lingnan School  which used the technical skills of tradition to set the stage for modern painting.
Traditional learning flourished, especially among Ming loyalists such as Dai Zhen and Gu Yanwu , but scholars in the school of evidential learning made innovations in skeptical textual scholarship.
Scholar-bureaucrats, including Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan , developed a school of practical statecraft which rooted bureaucratic reform and restructuring in classical philosophy.
Philosophy  and literature grew to new heights in the Qing period. Poetry continued as a mark of the cultivated gentleman, but women wrote in larger and larger numbers and poets came from all walks of life.
The poetry of the Qing dynasty is a lively field of research, being studied along with the poetry of the Ming dynasty for its association with Chinese opera , developmental trends of Classical Chinese poetry , the transition to a greater role for vernacular language , and for poetry by women.
The Qing dynasty was a period of literary editing and criticism, and many of the modern popular versions of Classical Chinese poems were transmitted through Qing dynasty anthologies, such as the Quan Tangshi and the Three Hundred Tang Poems.
Although fiction did not have the prestige of poetry, novels flourished. Pu Songling brought the short story to a new level in his Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio , published in the midth century, and Shen Fu demonstrated the charm of the informal memoir in Six Chapters of a Floating Life , written in the early 19th century but published only in The art of the novel reached a pinnacle in Cao Xueqin 's Dream of the Red Chamber , but its combination of social commentary and psychological insight were echoed in highly skilled novels such as Wu Jingzi 's Rulin waishi and Li Ruzhen 's Flowers in the Mirror The most prestigious form became the so-called Peking opera , though local and folk opera were also widely popular.
Cuisine aroused a cultural pride in the richness of a long and varied past. The gentleman gourmet, such as Yuan Mei , applied aesthetic standards to the art of cooking, eating, and appreciation of tea at a time when New World crops and products entered everyday life.
Yuan's Suiyuan Shidan expounded culinary aesthetics and theory, along with a range of recipes. The Manchu Han Imperial Feast originated at the court.
Although this banquet was probably never common, it reflected an appreciation of Manchu culinary customs. Yuan wrote that the feast was caused in part by the "vulgar habits of bad chefs" and that "displays this trite are useful only for welcoming new relations through one's gates or when the boss comes to visit".
After , writers, historians and scholars in China and abroad generally deprecated the failures of the late imperial system.
However, in the 21st century, a favorable view has emerged in popular culture. Building pride in Chinese history, nationalists have portrayed Imperial China as benevolent, strong and more advanced than the West.
They blame ugly wars and diplomatic controversies on imperialist exploitation by Western nations and Japan.
Although officially still communist and Maoist, in practice China's rulers have used this grassroots settlement to proclaim that their current policies are restoring China's historical glory.
The New Qing History is a revisionist historiographical trend starting in the mids emphasizing the Manchu nature of the dynasty.
Earlier historians had emphasized the power of Han Chinese to " sinicize " their conquerors , that is, to assimilate and make them Chinese in their thought and institutions.
In the s and early s, American scholars began to learn Manchu and took advantage of newly opened Chinese- and Manchu-language documents in the archives.
Ping-ti Ho criticized the new approach for exaggerating the Manchu character of the dynasty and argued for the sinification of its rule.
Still others in China agree that this scholarship has opened new vistas for the study of Qing history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Former empire in Eastern Asia, last imperial regime of China. For other uses, see Qing disambiguation. Not to be confused with the Qin dynasty , the first dynasty of Imperial China.
Imperial seal. Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history.
Main article: Names of the Qing dynasty. See also: Names of China. Further information: Timeline of the Qing dynasty and History of foreign relations of China.
See also: Transition from Ming to Qing. See also: Revolt of the Three Feudatories. See also: Ten Great Campaigns. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Taiwan Prefecture until Anhui. Main article: Military of the Qing dynasty. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January Main article: Qing literati. Main article: Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty.
This section may require copy editing. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Christianity in China and Medical missions in China.
October Main article: History of science and technology in China. Main article: New Qing History. China portal History portal.
Historical Atlas of China. Beijing: China Map Press. Manchuria Under Japanese Domination. Translated by J.
University of Pennsylvania Press. Yale University Press. Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 1 June Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, — I reprint ed.
Global Oriental. Archived from the original on 3 May — via Dartmouth. Archived from the original on 25 October — via Dartmouth.
University of Washington Press. Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved 4 May Archived from the original on 3 July Encyclopedia Britannica.
Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 21 July September China Heritage Quarterly. First English edition, London: John Crook, The problem of relations between China, Yuan and Qing".
International Journal of Central Asian Studies. Retrieved 18 May — via Academia. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies.
Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 7 January Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 30 December Pearson Hall, , pp.
Open Book Publishers. Nomads on Pilgrimage: Mongols on Wutaishan China , — Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 4 April Environmental History.
Retrieved 13 February University of Maryland. Archived from the original on 18 December Retrieved 19 October Archived from the original on 21 July The New York Times.
Cohen Columbia UP. Lodwick, Crusaders against opium: Protestant missionaries in China, — pp. Wehrle, Britain, China, and the Antimissionary Riots — pp.
Choa Chinese University Press. Allen Tupper, Jr. The Encyclopedia of Missions 2nd ed. Nursing History Review.
Bulletin of the History of Medicine.Reisebüro aus China. Man schätzt, dass die Europäer die Hälfte von Millionen Silber- US-Dollar aus den amerikanischen Kolonien — für den Ankauf chinesischer und anderer ostasiatischer Waren ausgegeben haben, vornehmlich für Luxusartikel wie Porzellan, Seide und Tee. Sie halfen ihm, den Rest von dem Reich der Ming zu erobern. Die Politik der Apartheit zwischen Mandschu und Iva awz wurde jedoch zunehmend gnade recht. Vielleicht wollte https://ingemarsvenssonrallying.se/uhd-filme-stream/pokemon-online-sehen.php damit signalisieren, dass er einen frischen Start nun machen wollte, im Gegensatz tierheim dornbusch dem Sumpf von dem Ming Reich. Im Alter von 20 fing er an, Aufstände niederzuschlagen, qing dynastie sich gegen die Qing erhoben. Eigentlich war die Qing-Dynastie jedoch gar nicht apologise, hГ¶here gewalt consider sondern mandschurisch. Indem sie gewöhnliche Leute konvertierten, veränderte sich die Religion nicht mit dem Wechsel der Regierungen in dem Einer von seinen Aktionen, die dem Reich geholfen haben, sehr rasch sich zu stabilisieren und Wohlstand aufzubauen, click at this page, dass er viele Ming Offizielle wieder zu den imperialen Ämtern einsetzte.
Kaiser der Quing Dynastie. Nachdem Shunzhi die Macht der Qing über die chinesische Hauptstadt etabliert hatte, starb er sechs Jahre später an den Pocken.
Die Qing-Herrscher waren sofort nach der Einigung Chinas bestrebt, ihre Autorität zu festigen und ihren Einflussbereich auszudehnen.
Diese autokratische und absolutistische Bewegung wurde von einer allmächtigen Zentralregierung ausgeübt.
Kangxi regierte von bis und ist der Herrscher mit der längsten Regentschaft aller chinesischen Herrscher. Regierungssitz war Peking. Die Verantwortlichkeiten dieser Ministerien wurden zwischen Mandschu, Han und Mongolen aufgeteilt, um den multikulturellen Charakter des Regimes zu erhalten.
Diese Ministerien waren hauptsächlich mit Routineverwaltungsarbeiten beschäftigt. Wichtige Entscheidungen wurden weiterhin am Hof getroffen.
Bist Du an Russischer Geschichte interessiert? Eine wichtige Entwicklung war das Kangxi Dictionary, das die chinesische Schrift standardisierte.
Zur Machtkontrolle wurden die kapitalistischen Tendenzen mittels Verstaatlichung und Monopolisierung unterbunden. Mitte des Kleinhändler kamen zu Reichtum, wodurch sich eine wohlhabende Mittelschicht bildete.
Viele nutzten ihr Vermögen, um innerhalb der Qing-Hierarchie einen höheren sozialen Status zu erlangen.
Auch entstanden zu dieser Zeit erste Geldhäuser, die sich auf Geldwechsel, Anleihen und Kredite spezialisierten. Die Regierung der Qing versuchte einer Hungersnot durch Preisstabilität entgegenzuwirken und nutzte dazu verschiedene Werkzeuge.
Die Verkäufe aus Getreidespeicher wurden preislich unter dem Marktpreis angesetzt und flexibel gestaltet. Getreideverteilungen wurden eingeführt, um einen Preisanstieg zu verhindern und die Nachfrage zu befriedigen.
Regierungskäufe stabilisierten die Marktpreise. Im Binnenmarkt war Baumwolle der wichtigste Textilstoff , dessen Pflanzen im östlichen Shandong, im nördlichen Hebei und im zentralchinesischen Hubei angebaut wurden.
Um den Bedarf nach frischem Reis und anderen Getreidesorten sicherzustellen, wurden Getreidespeicher installiert.
Mit Beginn des Jahrhunderts begannen Intellektuelle die ausländischen Werke der Wissenschaft, Politik und der Literatur zu übersetzen.
Der Zugang zu ausländischer Literatur war einfach und die Gesellschaft wurde mehr als bisher von der westlichen Kultur beeinflusst.
Schulen wurden von den Missionaren gebaut, in denen Studenten ausgebildet wurden. Ein Chinese ist Konfuzianer, wenn es ihm gut geht, er ist Daoist, wenn es ihm schlecht geht, und er ist Buddhist im Angesicht des Todes.
Eine gute Religion verband sich mit dem Staat und wurde zur staatstragenden Kraft, indem sie dem Kaiser oder der herrschenden Regierung den Segen des Himmels vermittelte.
Der Unterschied im Verhalten der Kaiser gegenüber den verschiedenen Religionen lag nur darin, dass die Kaiser sich vor dem Altar des Himmelstempels und des Konfuziustempels niederwarfen, während sie sich vor den anderen Altären nur verbeugten.
Während die katholischen Mönche, die schon während der Ming und der frühen Qing Dynastie ins Land kamen, höhere Regierungsämter anstrebten, lebten sie mitten unter den einfachen Leuten und bauten zahllose Schulen und Krankenhäuser.
Der innere Frieden und die gute wirtschaftliche Situation führten zu einem bisher nicht gekannten Bevölkerungswachstum.
Zwischen und stieg die Bevölkerung von Millionen auf Millionen Einwohner an und überforderte bald die Verwaltung. Durch Ressourcenknappheit, Verwaltungs- Finanzprobleme und Kriege stiegen die Steuern, welche die Bevölkerung zusätzlich belasteten.
Korruption und Betrug wurden alltäglich. Wirtschaftlich und militärisch wurde die ab zunehmende europäische Überlegenheit nicht wahrgenommen.
Als Reaktion auf das aggressive Vorgehen der europäischen Handelskompanien, begann die Qing-Dynastie ab den Überseehandel für die Europäer noch strenger zu reglementieren.
Opium war in China beliebt, und der Opiumkonsum breitete sich in den Jahren — trotz staatlichen Verbots immer weiter aus. Das hatte auch schwerwiegende Auswirkungen auf die öffentliche Moral und die Wirtschaft.
Der Gelbe Fluss änderte um seinen Lauf, eine Naturkatastrophe, die durch Korruption hausgemacht war und die es zuletzt gegeben hatte.
The only genuine four character "Kangxi Nian Zhi" marks is done within a double line square border and used exclusively for palace workshop decorated wares, the highest level of Imperial porcelain.
All four character Kangxi marks without borders are from and around the Guangxu period when four character kaishu marks were widely used.
Imperial Kangxi mark. Late period: Precise, tight, rather small and less "free" than the other two groups. During the Kangxi period, the habit of adding reign marks on porcelain not commissioned by the emperor are known to have been addressed and forbidden by public edicts.
It is likely that this is an example of one of these period but not Imperial marks that these regulations was aimed at quelling.
It is also worth pondering of this mark is not written by the same person as the above, but just a little bit faster.
Click here to see large picture. During the early Qing dynasty, up until the early 's conditions were unsettled in China and the existence of Imperial wares as well as the use of reign marks on porcelain was restricted in various ways.
During this period a number of different marks came into use, as well as two empty rings which in a way could be considered a period marking if not Imperial.
During the early Qing dynasty, up until the early s conditions were unsettled in China and the making of Imperial wares as well as the use of reign marks on porcelain was restricted in various ways.
During this period a number of other marks came into use, as well as the drawing of two empty rings on the bases which in a way could be considered a marking of the Kangxi period.
Also this practice was copied during the latter part of the Qing dynasty. Yongzheng Yongzheng The Yongzheng Emperor December 13, - October 8, was 44 years old when he ascended the Dragon Throne in and died two months before his 58th birthday.
He reigned for 13 years. During the latter part of the Yongzheng period the zhuanshu seal mark is introduced. According to Manchu tradition, the Kangxi emperor was succeeded by his fourth son, the Yongzheng emperor who ruled from to His imperial title, Yongzheng , means 'harmonious and correct', whilst his family name, Yinzhen , means "inheritance of luck".
In some ways, his reign can be seen as a reaction against that of his father: where the Kangxi emperor was conciliatory, the Yongzheng emperor acted firmly against corruption, offering bonuses to demonstrably incorruptible officials and thereby greatly improving the flow of revenue.
Capable of extremely hard work, he not only dealt with dozens of daily memorials government reports from all over the country, but he developed the system whereby "Palace Memorials" established by his father came directly to him, bypassing officials of the Outer Court and providing him with private information.
It is clear that there was considerable rivalry between the Kangxi emperor's twenty sons he had had thirty-six but only twenty survived , since on his accession the Yongzheng emperor imprisoned a number of his brothers, and remained touchy about accusations that he had usurped the throne.
In order to control imperial heirs, he insisted upon their all being taught in the school inside the Forbidden City and instructed in Confucian morals by the best Chinese teachers.
He also instituted the practice of concealing the name of the designated heir in a box kept in the Qianqing hall, to be opened only after the emperor's death.
To the left: Kaishu normal script style mark, to the right zhuanshu archaic seal script. The Yongzheng emperor nominated his fourth son, Hongli , meaning "Great Successor", as his heir and he ruled from to as the Qianlong or " eminent sovereign " emperor.
He had been a great favorite of his grandfather, the Kangxi emperor, with whom he would go hunting as a boy. Some say that the Kangxi emperor chose Yongzheng as his successor so that he would eventually be succeeded by his grandson, although that would seem a rather risky prospect, as the Yongzheng emperor had ten sons though only four survived into adulthood.
When Qianlong was on the throne China was flourishing, but as he left the throne it was beginning to decline. The long reign of the Qianlong emperor who retired in , three years before his death may be considered the height of the Qing.
Though his Ten Great Campaigns were not all as successful as he claimed, he brought much of Central Asia under Qing rule, vastly increasing the size of his empire.
The costs of his campaigns were met by an increase in cultivated land, with new crops, such as maize and peanuts, being grown and with firm controls on revenue collection.
Well versed in Chinese culture, the Qianlong emperor is supposed to have written essays and as many as 42, poems.
He developed the imperial collection, commissioning paintings and artefacts from Chinese and foreign artists, as well as collecting ancient Chinese objects and ordering the cataloguing of palace paintings and calligraphy.
Like his grandfather Kangxi, the Qianlong emperor made five great tours of inspection of southern China, reversing the tradition of the Ming emperors who only left the Forbidden City to visit the imperial altars but did not venture outside Peking.
His daily routine was described in detail by the Jesuit priest Fr Benoist. He rose at six, ate alone at eight his meal taking about 15 minutes and then read reports and memorials, discussing them with his ministers.
He held an audience for newly appointed officials and had another brief solitary meal at two. Then he would read, write verse or paint and perhaps take some 'light refreshment' before bed.
Unlike the Chinese, the Qianlong emperor took milk in his tea, with special herds of dairy cows providing the Manchu imperial family with milk.
A menu for one of his meals in included a dish of fat chicken, boiled duck and bean curd, swallows nests and shredded smoked duck, smoked chicken, shredded stewed chicken, Chinese cabbage, salted duck and pork, bamboo-shoot steamed dumplings, rice cakes with honey and side dishes of pickled eggplant, pickled cabbage and cucumbers in soy sauce In the 60th year of his reign , the Qianlong Emperor enthroned his son and became overlord for four years.
In the 4th year of the Jiaqing reign the Qianlong Emperor died at age During this period the archaic zhuanshu seal mark is by far the most common, largely ousting the regular kaishu script.
It is thought that the few genuine kaishu marks dates to the two first years of the reign before the official seal mark of the Qianlong period becomes standardized by an official decree.
Seal marks are often written in iron-red but under glaze blue or gilt can occur as well as incised, stamped or molded in relief.
On a small group of porcelain genuine marks in raised blue enamel can appear. Seal marks from the period can also be written in a cartouche or with the seal broken up, and on the base of stem-cups written in a horizontal row from right to left.
On later Qianlong copies the seal mark in red enamel is something of a favorite. Jiaqing Jiaqing During this period most imperial wares are marked with the zhuanshu "archaic seal", a continuation of its popularity from the Qianlong period.
Daoguang Daoguang During this period most imperial wares are marked with the zhuanshu "archaic seal", a continuation of its popularity from the Qianlong period.
Xianfeng Xianfeng The Xianfeng was proclaimed in March The first year of his reign was Died in August during the eleventh year of his reign.
He was born in July 17, at the Imperial Summer Palace Complex, 8 kilometers northwest of the walls of Beijing as the fourth son of the Daoguang Emperor.
His mother was the Imperial Concubine Quan , made Empress in Chosen as the Crown Prince in the later years of the Daoguang reign, Yizhu had reputed ability in literature and administration which surpassed most of his brothers.
At age 19 he succeeded the throne, in , left with a crumbling dynasty facing challenges internally and also from Europeans. In the The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Rebellion began, spreading to several provinces with amazing speed.
Xianfengs attempts to crush the rebellion was met with limited success. In several Muslim rebellions began in the southwest.
Western forces, led by France, after inciting a few battles on the coast near Tianjin, attempted "negotiation" with the Qing Government.
Under the influence of the Concubine Yi later the Ci Xi Dowager Empress Xianfeng believed in Chinese superiority and would not agree to any western demands.
Emperor Xianfeng and his Imperial entourage fled to the northern traveling palace in Jehol. While becoming more physically ill, Xianfeng's ability to govern deteriorated, while two competing ideologies in court formed two distinct factions, one under the rich Manchu Sushun, Princes Yi and Zheng; and one under the Concubine Yi, supported by Gen.
Ronglu and Yehenala Bannermen. One day before his death the Xianfeng emperor had summoned a group to his bedside, giving them an Imperial Edict to rule during his only surviving son, Prince Zaizhun minority, at that time barely 6 years old.
By tradition, after the death of an Emperor, the body is to be accompanied to the Capital by the regents. Concubine Yi however traveled to Beijing ahead of time, staging a coup that would make her the acting ruler of China for the next 47 years, under the title of Empress Dowager Cixi.
During Xianfeng's reign the Qing government was on the verge of collapse. In the 4th year of the Tongzhi reign , Xianfeng was buried in Dingling.
During his period in practice his mother, the Empress Dowager Cixi , wielded the real power, ruling sitting behind a curtain in the audience hall.
Under his reign some attempts to political reforms was made, which are know as the Tongzhi Restoration. In January 12, , the Tongzhi Emperor died at age 19 of small pox without a son.
It has been rumored that his cause of death was actually syphilis "due to his excessive and bizarre sexual appetite and alleged affairs with prostitutes outside of the palace".
Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi After the death of Xianfeng in , Zaichun , Nalashi's six-year-old son, succeeded to the throne under the reign title of Tongzhi so Nalashi was promoted to Empress Dowager with her honorary title Cixi.
In the 11th year of the Xianfeng reign she worked hand in glove with her brother-in-law Yixin, launched a coup d'etat, wiped out her political enemies and commenced directing state affairs from behind a screen.
Thus, she became an unofficial empress during reigns by Tongzhi and Guangxu during 48 years.
Cixi died in Three years after she died, the Qing Dynasty came to its end with the Revolution of Cixi's tomb was exquisitely constructed in a unique style.
It ranks as the best for building details among the tombs of the Qing Dynasty. Railings around Long'en Palace are replete with carved motifs of roaring waves, floating clouds, dragons and phoenixes symbolizing auspicious omens.
The stone steps in front of the palace are carved with three dimensional phoenixes and dragons flanking the pearl.
Carved on walls are intricate designs marking happiness, prosperity, and longevity. On the arch beams and ceilings are gilded golden paintings such as a golden dragon coiled around all exposed pillars.
These kinds of designs are not seen in other mausoleum palaces. The tomb was plundered in Not only blue and white pieces and enamelled porcelain in famille verte enamels were produced but also replicas in monochrome enamels such as Sang-de-Boef or Ox-blood.
The good part with these early copies is that they are pretty easy to recognize since they were not really trying to produce perfect fakes, but appears to have more wanted to continue to make pieces in the Kangxi period style and tradition.
Now that turned out quite difficult. Many processes and traditions were never written down and had been lost and forgotten.
Sources for paste and glaze had changed. While the blue and white porcelains turned out pretty good, the red ox-blood monochromes got a too thick glaze that ran and often needed to be ground off of the foot rim.
For other style replicas there were other problems making them distinguishable. Another aspect is, that there was indeed a great interest in the West, in particular among American collectors, for antique Chinese porcelain at this time.
Prices at auctions were soaring. So, there was a ready market for antiques, even newly made ones. I don't think this was among the main reasons why the Kangxi period was revived as a whole, but it was a part of the picture why so many grand pieces was made.
He was born August 14, and ascended the throne in at the age of four as the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
He was adopted by the Empress Dowager Cixi as her son. Until age nineteen, in , the Guangxu Emperor was "aided" in his rule by the Empress Dowager Cixi.Jahrhundert wieder auf. Er schätzte die Bildung und weitreichenden Verbindungen der Jesuiten, die während seiner Regierungszeit sehr aktiv click here. Die Krise des Kaiserreiches entlud sich im Taiping-Aufstand —, siehe dortder die chinesische Gesellschaft in ihren Grundfesten erschütterte. Jahrhundert eingeführten isolationistischen Handelshemmnisse und fremdenfeindlichen Beschränkungen der Verkehrswege wurden weitestgehend aufgehoben. Er hatte einer der längsten Regierungszeiten in der Geschichte der Dynastie. Sein Talent als brillanter Stratege wurde rasch offenbar. Der Boxeraufstand https://ingemarsvenssonrallying.se/online-stream-filme/dont-knock-twice-stream.php Jahr war ein fremdenfeindlicher Aufstand, welcher von einem Expeditionstrupp westlicher Mächte niedergeschlagen wurde.